At the 2010 Census, 64.8% of the population was White, 25.8% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.4% Asian, 0.3% Other and 2.3% mixed. 2.3% of Pittsburgh's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 64.8% of the population in 2010,compared to 78.7% in 1970.
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The growth of Pittsburgh and its economy was caused by the extensive trade in steel through the 1970s. Pittsburgh has since adapted to the collapse of the region's steel industry. The primary industries have shifted more to high technology, such as robotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, and services. As of 2007, the total annual payroll of the region's technology industries, when taken in aggregate, exceeded $10.8 billion, and as of 2010, there were 1,600 technology companies. Reflecting the citywide shift from industry to technology, some former factories have been directly renovated into modern office space. For example, Google operates an office in a former Nabisco factory, a complex known as Bakery Square. Some of the factory's original equipment, such as a large dough mixer, were left standing in homage to the site's industrial roots. Pittsburgh's generally successful shift away from its industrial past has led to it being characterized as "the poster child for managing industrial transition". Other major cities in the northeast and mid-west have increasingly borrowed from Pittsburgh's model in order to renew their industries and economic base.
Pittsburgh has grown its economic base in recent years to include technology, retail, finance, education, and medical care (which constitutes the largest proportion of the city's employment). The largest single employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, with 48,000 employees. All hospitals, outpatient clinics, and doctor's office positions combine for 116,000 jobs, approximately 10% of the jobs in the region. An analyst recently observed of the city's medical sector: "That's both more jobs and a higher share of the region's total employment than the steel industry represented in the 1970s."
Area retail is anchored by over 35 shopping malls and a healthy downtown retail sector as well as boutique shops along Walnut Street, in Squirrel Hill andStation Square.
Education is another major industry in the region. The largest single employer in that industry is the University of Pittsburgh, with 10,700 employees.
Pittsburgh still maintains its status as a corporate headquarters city, with nine Fortune 500 companies calling the city home. This ranks Pittsburgh in a tie for the eighth most Fortune 500 headquarters in the nation. In 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Pittsburgh among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.
Several Fortune 500 corporations have headquarters in the city or the surrounding area (9 by the 2012 count). These include PNC Financial Services, PPG Industries, U.S. Steel, H. J. Heinz Company, Mylan Laboratories (Located in suburban Cecil Township), WESCO International, CONSOL Energy (Located in suburban Cecil Township), and Dick's Sporting Goods (Located in suburban Findlay Township).
Pittsburgh and the surrounding region is also home to Allegheny Technologies, American Eagle Outfitters, Kennametal, Atlas America, Bayer USA and the operations center of Alcoa. Other major employers include BNY Mellon, GlaxoSmithKline, Thermo Fisher Scientific and Lanxess. The city and the surrounding region serve as the Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Nova Chemicals, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, FedEx Ground, Ariba, and theRAND Corporation. 84 Lumber, Giant Eagle, Highmark, Rue 21, and Genco Supply Chain Solutions are major non-public companies with headquarters in the region. Other major companies headquartered in Pittsburgh include General Nutrition Center (GNC) and CNX Gas (CXG), a subsidiary of Consol Energy. The global impact of Pittsburgh technology and business was recently demonstrated in several key components of the Boeing 787 Dreamlinerbeing manufactured and supplied in Pittsburgh by area based companies.
The nonprofit arts and cultural industry in Allegheny County generates $341 million in economic activity and supports over 10,000 full-time equivalent jobs. Revenues of nearly $34 million are generated through local and state tax.
The region is also becoming a hub for natural gas and oil extraction in the Marcellus Shale formation.[