My best friend has Knuth on his shelves but I expect very few people will actually read that; I know I'm going to steer clear from his books!
To answer your first question, I think the books that influenced me most are:
1) the BASIC programming manual that came with my first computer, an Acorn Atom. :-) It got me hooked on programming. I still remember the title of one of the last chapters: "What To Do If Baffled"; I remember it because, as a 14 y/o native Dutch speaker, I had to look up what 'baffled' means...
2) "Data Structures with Abstract Data Types and Modula-2" by Stubbs & Webre. It's 17 years old by now, but I don't think I'll ever get rid of it. It was mandatory material at my uni (the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam) and I remember that back in 1992 I did not 'get' what is special about Data Structures and ADT's. The contrast with my current situation (I dream in data structures :-) is remarkable. Programming IS manipulation of Data Structures.
3) "Programming Windows with MFC" by Jeff Prosise. I think of this as "my cash cow book"; I read the first 16 chapters/983 pages in 9 days and for the following two years, it earned its purchase price back once every day --it cost about $95. It is now the most heavily used/damaged book on my shelves*. A couple of years ago I sent an e-mail to thank Mr Prosise for writing it.
4) "Parsing Techniques, A Practical Guide" by Dick Grune et al. Grune (http://www.cs.vu.nl/~dick/; the book can be downloaded from this site) was my favorite lecturer at the aforementioned uni, and/because he is a very likeable person. He also wrote the famous CVS-software, and a book titled "Programming Language Essentials". I don't even mean to emphasize my nerd status when I say that this books makes for some very nice, light, interesting bed time reading...
I also have the "Code" books that you mention, plus "Writing Solid Code", but I can't say they influenced me all that much. Although "Solid" did describe some interesting concepts.
Answering your second question, regarding recommendations: here are some classics from some areas that I am interested in, in random order:
- "Computer Graphics, Principles and Practice" by Foley & Van Dam.
- "Algorithms" by Sedgewick.
- "Database Systems" by C.J. Date.
- "Compilers. Principles, Techniques, and Tools" (a.k.a. "The Red Dragon Book" ) by Aho, Sethi & Ullman
- "Programming Language Concepts" by Ghezzi & Jazayeri.
- "Object Oriented Software Construction" by Betrand Meyer.
Let me know if/when you tried any of these, and what you think of them.
* This isn't entirely true: my copy of "Fundamentals of Database Systems" by Elmasri & Navathe is slightly more damaged, but that's because it's a paperback, whereas Prosise is a hardcover. I definitely used Prosise much more often.