Different games have different time limits to move, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days & 21 days. This limit is decided by the person who creates the game. I had a look at the game you mentioned, but I can't see the "game details". You will be able to - it's on the "my games" screen. You will probably find that the game was a 3 day limit, which is why your opponent could time you out.
It's unfortunate that you lost a game this way. I would suggest going to "my challenge settings" (on the "my home" bar) and setting a minimum time out (eg. 7 days) that you are comfortable. This will prevent people challenging you to games with timeouts that are too short for your liking in the future.