Originally posted by AThousandYoung
mtDNA haplogroup A
I need to put some time into figuring out what the different ethnic groups are in the Americas.
United States - Native American ancestry
Autosomal testing, Y-DNA, and mtDNA testing can be conducted to determine Amerindian ancestry. A mitochondrial Haplogroup determination test based on mutations in Hypervariable Region 1 and 2 may establish whether a person's direct female line belongs to one of the canonical Native American Haplogroups, A, B, C, D or X. If one's DNA belonged to one of those groups, the implication would be that he or she is, in whole or part, Native American.
As political entities, tribes have established their own requirements for membership, often based on at least one of a person's direct ancestors having been included on tribal-specific Native American censuses (or final rolls) prepared during treaty-making, relocation to reservations or apportionment of land in the late 1800s and early 1900s. One example is the Dawes Rolls. In addition, the U.S. government does not consider DNA as admissible evidence for enrollment in any federally recognized tribe or reception of benefits. Tribes are political constructs, not genetic populations.
Complicating factors in identification is recent evidence that indigenous North American mitochondrial haplogroups may not be limited to the five named. The vast majority of Native American individuals do belong to one of the five identified mtDNA Haplogroups. Many Americans are just discovering they have some percentage of Native ancestry. Some attempt to validate their heritage with the goal of gaining admittance into a tribe, but most tribes do not use DNA results in that way. These tests may be useful for adoptees to discover Native American ancestry.