Originally posted by FabianFnas
Preon stars are stars with a density higher than that of a neutron star, but less than that of a black hole. It is thought to consist of preon matter, a kind of matter bilieved to be some strange sub-quark particles and leptons.
Experiment has been made at the large particle accellerators but no preons has been found (yet).
But - here is the interes ...[text shortened]... ck hole.
I don't know much of preon matters and preon stars, perhaps others will fill in...?
I don't know why there would be anything special about gravitational lensing around prion stars v neutron stars, it wouldn't just bend gamma rays, it bends EVERYTHING, like X-rays, Neutrino's, gravity waves, protons, etc. Gamma rays are just a shorter wavelength version of radio or TV or light waves or Terahertz radiation. They all get bent to the same degree, with one exception (You are hearing this first from me, this is my work):
Gravitational lensing is frequency dependent to a degree, it's a geometrical effect. Suppose you chart the gravitational lens 'strength' around an ordinary star like our sun. You probably are fully aware of the 1.75 arc seconds of bending a light path takes when it goes by the surface of the sun, right? Ok, now if you back off from the sun you find our sun is like a poor lens with an F stop of around 117,000:1. If you do the trig, it works out that the first focal point for the sun happens about 52 billion miles following the path of the radiation skimming the surface of the sun. Like if you had two parallel laser beams well focused so it doesn't spread out much and one skimmed the surface on the left side of the sun and the other skimmed the surface on the right side of the sun, the beams would be bent by that 1.75 seconds of arc and would meet some 83 billion Km out in space, like ten times the distance to pluto. But if those same laser beams were to be moved so the beams passed by the sun at 1 solar radii out they would meet at 4 times the distance, or about 320 billion Km out in space. So there is a continuous focal line between those two points and beyond of course.
I mention this to illustrate my own little discovery in gravitational lensing: As the beams skim by the sun at further and further distances, say 2 solar radii, 3 solar radii, and so forth, there comes a point where the focus point would be a million light years out into space, in otherwords, a point of diminishing returns. Now think about a single electromagnetic wave. If it is the size of light, say half a micron, then the two laser beams gets pretty well focused. But look at what happens if the wavelength increases, lower frequencies. There comes a point at which some VERY low frequency, (one hertz would be a wavelength of 300,000 Km and one tenth of a hertz would have a wavelength of 3,000,000 Km)
Think about that for a minute. A one micron size EM pulse would be bent at that famous 1.75 seconds of arc but a very low wavelength wave would go by the sun with no focus simply because it would straddle the whole sun and the gravitational lens effect may twist the wave in a phase change but the wave is simply too large to be focused. So that means that for every lens. be it a star, a black hole, a Prion star, neutron star, planet, whatever the mass concentration is, there will be a frequency that will not bend. That means if you had a variable wavelength generator and antenna system, you could in theory make an independent estimate of the mass of a star or whatever, by charting the frequencies that no longer lens. Get that? An independent way to measure mass. The idea would be, you have a generator and antenna on one side of a star, say 100 billion Km out in space and a receiver on the opposite side of the star at maybe the same distance, and vary the frequency starting at some very long wavelength and at the other side of the sun the receiver would be charting the strength of the radiation. So say starting at a frequency of 1/100 hertz, which is a wavelength of 30,000,000 km, you would note when the signal gets to the receiver, the strength would be so and so, the same as if the star was not there, but when you start raising the frequency, 1/10th hertz, 1 hertz, 10 hertz, etc., now at 10 hertz, 30,000 Km wavelength, the signal would show an increase in strength beyond that of what you would expect with no interloping mass, and that frequency would be unique for every mass. I have been in the process of writing up this idea for a few years but am too busy at work and with music and kids, etc. to finish it up. Do you get the main idea here?