Classifications of sausage
Sausages classification is subject to regional differences of opinion. Various metrics such as types of ingredients, consistency, and preparation are used. In the English-speaking world, the following distinction between fresh, cooked, and dry sausages seems to be more or less accepted:
* Cooked sausages are made with fresh meats, and then fully cooked. They are either eaten immediately after cooking or must be refrigerated. Examples include hot dogs, Braunschweiger, and liver sausage.
* Cooked smoked sausages are cooked and then smoked or smoke-cooked. They are eaten hot or cold, but need to be refrigerated. Examples include kielbasa, and mortadella. Some are slow cooked while smoking, in which case the process takes several days or longer, such as the case for Gyulai kolbász.
* Fresh sausages are made from meats that have not been previously cured. They must be refrigerated and thoroughly cooked before eating. Examples include Boerewors, Italian pork sausage, siskonmakkara, and breakfast sausage.
* Fresh smoked sausages are fresh sausages that are smoked. They should be refrigerated and cooked thoroughly before eating. Examples include Mettwurst and Teewurst.
* Dry sausages are cured sausages that are fermented and dried. They are generally eaten cold and will keep for a long time. Examples include salami, Droë wors, Finnish meetvursti, Sucuk, Landjäger, and summer sausage.
* Bulk sausage, or sometimes sausage meat, refers to raw, ground, spiced meat, usually sold without any casing.
The distinct flavor of some sausages is due to fermentation by Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, or Micrococcus (added as starter cultures) or natural flora during curing.
Other countries, however, use different systems of classification. Germany, for instance, which boasts more than 1200 types of sausage, distinguishes raw, cooked and precooked sausages.
* Raw sausages are made with raw meat and are not cooked. They are preserved by lactic acid fermentation, and they may be dried, brined or smoked. Most raw sausages will keep for a long time. Examples include Mettwurst and salami.
* Cooked sausages may include water and emulsifiers and are always cooked. They will not keep long. Examples include cervelat, Jagdwurst, and Weißwurst.
* Precooked sausages (Kochwurst) are made with cooked meat but may also include raw organ meat. They may be heated after casing, and they will keep only for a few days. Examples include Saumagen and Blutwurst.
In Italy, the basic distinctions are:
* Raw sausage (salsiccia) with a thin casing
* Cured and aged sausage (salsiccia stagionata or salsiccia secca)
* Cooked sausage (wuerstel)
* Blood sausage (sanguinaccio or boudin)
* Liver sausage (salsiccia di fegato)
* Salami (in Italy, salami is the plural of salame, a big, cured, fermented and air-dried sausage)
* Cheese sausage (casalsiccia) with cheese inside
The U.S. has a particular type called pickled sausages, commonly found in gas stations and small roadside delicatessens. These are usually smoked or boiled sausages of a highly processed hot dog or kielbasa style plunged into a boiling brine of vinegar, salt, spices, and often a pink coloring, then canned in Mason jars. They are available in single blister packs or sold out of a jar. They are shelf stable, and they are a frequently offered alternative to beef jerky, Slim Jims, and other kippered snacks.
Certain countries classify sausage types according to the region in which the sausage was traditionally produced:
* France: Montbéliard, Morteau, Strasbourg, Toulouse,..
* Germany: Frankfurt am Main, Thuringia, Nuremberg, Pomerania, ..
* Austria: Vienna, ..
* Italy: Merano (Meraner Wurst)
* UK: Cumberland, Chiltern, Lincolnshire, Glamorgan, ..
* Slovenia: Kranjska (klobasa), after the Slovenian name for the province of Carniola
* Spain: botifarra catalana, chorizo riojano, chorizo gallego, chorizo de Teror, longaniza de Aragón, morcilla de Burgos, morcilla de Ronda, morcilla extremeña, morcilla dulce canaria, llonganissa de Vic, fuet d'Olot, sobrassada mallorquina, botillo de León, llonganissa de Valencia, farinato de Salamanca, ..
* Poland: kielbasa krakowska (Kraków-style), toruńska (Toruń
, żywiecka (Żywiec), bydgoska (Bydgoszcz), krotoszyńska (Krotoszyn), podwawelska (literally: "from under Wawel"
, zielonogórska (Zielona Góra), rzeszowska (Rzeszów), śląska (Silesia), swojska, wiejska, jałowcowa, zwyczajna, polska, krajańska, szynkowa, parówkowa, ..
* Hungary: kolbász gyulai (after the town of Gyula), csabai (after the city of Békéscsaba), Debrecener (after the city of Debrecen).
* Serbia: Sremska kobasica, Sremska salama, Sremski kulen (after the region of Srem/Sirmium), Požarevačka kobasica (after the city of Požarevac)