Originally posted by @teinosuke
Well, alas, I can reply only to what you write, not to what you might wish later you had written. You made a comparison between the population of South Korea and Ghana. This was irrelevant in terms of the comparison made in the article.
However, the points you make about non-US aid to Africa are of course valid and well-taken.
To what do you primarily attribute the difference?
It's an obvious logical inference that US aid to Ghana must be a subset (likely a small one) of US aid in Africa.
It's so obvious that I felt no need to point it out explicitly.
Again, it was misleading and disingenuous for Teinosuke to harp upon US aid to Africa
as though the USA must be the only or even the main source of all aid to Africa.
After Angola gained its independence from Portugal and its government emerged after
winning a civil war against forces backed by the USA and apartheid South Africa, the USA
gave no aid to Angola. Angola received substantial aid from the USSR, Cuba, and GDR (East Germany).
The (arguably) single largest aid project in Africa--building a railway in Tanzania and Zambia--was
undertaken by China practically alone, perhaps with minor participation by any local workers.
(After designing the railway, the Chinese preferred to employ trained, experienced workers
from China rather than relying upon (and having to train) inexperienced local Africans
for the often hazardous work.)
"The TAZARA Railway, also called the Uhuru Railway or the Tanzam Railway, is a railroad
in East Africa linking the port of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania with the town of Kapiri Mposhi
in Zambia's Central Province. The single-track railway is 1,860 km (1,160 mi) long."
"The project was built from 1970 to 1975 as a turnkey project financed and supported by China.
At the time of its completion, two years ahead of schedule, the TAZARA was the single
longest railway in sub-Saharan Africa. TAZARA was the largest single foreign-aid project
undertaken by China at the time, at a construction cost of US $500 million (the equivalent of
US $3.08 billion today)"
The railway was built through much extremely difficult terrain, imposing hazardous working conditions.
(Some Westerners had assumed it could, at best, be completed much later than the Chinese had planned.)
I don't know how many Chinese workers died in accidents while building this railway.
At that time, China's government held that Chinese workers on the railway might have to
regard themselves almost as the equivalent of soldiers and be willing to sacrifice their lives.
"To what do you primarily attribute the difference?"
I don't know if I would *primarily* 'attribute the difference' between development in Ghana
and the Republic of Korea to *any single factor*. I believe, however, that people should
*not* be treated as only figures on paper, and it's important to consider cultural differences.
After Korea was devastated by war (an experience from which Ghana was spared),
many, if not most, Koreans became imbued with the ethos that they had to work and study
extraordinarily hard to rebuild their society (at last freed from Japanese imperialism) and
make it better than ever. (In Ghana, most people lacked the same consuming motivation.)
Not only postwar Germans can embrace the (apolitical) spirit of "Auferstanden aus Ruinen".